Research

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Publications (40)

34 Peer-reviewed, 25 First authored, *Asterixis indicates a student co-author

Books (1)

Boling, E., Gray, C. M., Howard, C. D., & Baaki, J. W. (2021). Historical Instructional Design Cases: ID Knowledge in Context and Practice. Taylor and Francis. ISBN: 978-0-367-35259-2 (hardback)

Peer-reviewed Journal Articles (19)

Howard, C. D. (2021). Participatory Media Literacy in Collaborative Video Annotation. Tech Trends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning 65860–873. Doi.org/10.1007/s11528-021-00632-6

Howard, C. D., & Baaki, J. W. (2021). Chopped ID and bicycle repair: Contrasting values in synchronous graduate instructional designs for design learning. The International Journal of Designs for Learning 12 (2). 111-126.

Cover Image from "The Blue Dot Thing: ... an empirical study of design interlanguage.

Howard, C. D., & *Bevins, K. L. (2020).  “The blue dot thing”: A discourse analysis of the interlanguage of instructional design. Co-Design: International Journal of CoCreation in Design and the Arts. Online First: Doi.org/10.1080/15710882.2020.1789173

Howard, C. D., & Benedicks, R. H. (2020). An industry liaison for graduate learning in instructional design. Tech Trends 64. 451-259 [Online first 2019]. Doi.org/10.1007/s11528-019-00465-4. [Nominated for the AECT Outstanding Research Paper Award in the Organizational Training and Performance Division to be announced in November 2020]

Howard, C. D., & Das, A. (2019). Designing competitive discussions for equity and inclusion. The International Journal of Designs for Learning 10(1), 1-13.

*Bevins, K.L., & Howard, C. D. (2018). Game mechanics and why they are employed: What we know about gamification so far. Issues and Trends in Educational Technology 6(1). 58-84.

Howard, C. D., & *Do, J. (2017). L2 (Im)politeness in the synchronous chat of elementary school ESL learners. Teaching English with Technology, 17(1), 25-37.

Howard, C. D., Staples, C., Dubreil, S., & Yamagata-Lynch, L.C. (2016). The App Farm: Engaging design process as a means for French learning. The International Journal of Designs for Learning, 7(3), 42-61.

Gray, C.M., & Howard, C. D. (2015). Reflection on designerly talk in non-pedagogical social spaces. Journal of Learning Design, 8(3), 143-164. doi:10.5204/jld.v8i3.259 [This is a republication in The Journal of Learning Design: 10th Anniversary Issue, 8(3) with an author reflection]

Howard, C. D., & Gray, C.M. (2014). Introduction to the special issue on historic designs for learning. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 5(2), 1-5.

Gray, C.M., & Howard, C. D. (2014). Designerly talk in non-pedagogical social spaces. Journal of Learning Design, 7(1), 40-58.  

Howard, C. D. (2012). An instructional paradigm for the teaching of CMC. Instructional Science, 40(3), 493-513.  DOI 10.1007/s11251-011-9187-0

Howard, C. D. (2011). Web 2.0 sites for collaborative self-access: The Learning Advisor vs. Google. Studies in Self Access Learning, 2(3), 195-211.

Howard, C. D. (2011). Writing and rewriting the instructional design case: A view from two sides. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 2(1), 40-55.

Howard, C. D., Barrett, A.F., & Frick, T.W. (2010). Anonymity to promote peer feedback: Pre-service teachers’ comments in asynchronous computer-mediated communication. The Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(1), 89-112.

Howard, C. D., & Myers, R.D. (2010). Creating video-annotated discussions: An asynchronous alternative. International Journal of Designs for Learning, 1(1), multimedia. http://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/ijdl/article/view/853

Howard, C. D. (2010). Obstacles to the credibility of online learning. eLearn, 2, article 5.  DOI:10.1145/1719292.1730789

Howard, C. D. (2009). Part of speech tagged asynchronous CMC: Comparing native, non-native, and newspaper English. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 34(1), 110-126.

Van Moere, A., & Howard, C. D. (2001).  Introducing the Kanda Email Exchange Programme into the basic English proficiency curriculum.  Studies in Linguistics and Language Education, 12(1), 99-117.

Peer-reviewed Book Chapters (6)

Gray, C. M., & Howard, C. D. (2021). Setting Design Cases in Historical Context. In E. Boling, C. M. Gray, C. D. Howard, & J. W. Baaki (Eds.) Historical Instructional Design Cases: ID Knowledge in Context and Practice. (pp. 1-9). Taylor and Francis.

*Lunga, M. L., & Howard, C. D. (2021). A lived experience of the Tennessee School for the Deaf (1920-2000). In E. Boling, C. M. Gray, C. D. Howard, & J. W. Baaki (Eds.) Historical Instructional Design Cases: ID Knowledge in Context and Practice. (pp. 50-61). Taylor and Francis.

*Bevins K. L., & Howard C. D. (2020). The design discourse of the advanced beginner. In B. Hokanson, G. Clinton, A. Tawfik, A. Grincewicz, & M. Schmidt (Eds.) Educational Technology Beyond Content. Educational Communications and Technology: Issues and Innovations. (pp. 85-98). Springer, Cham.

Howard, C. D. (2019). Critical thinking in collaborative video annotations: Relationships between Criticism and Higher Order Thinking. In G. Mariano & J. Figliano (Eds.) Handbook of Research on Critical Thinking Strategies in Pre-Service Learning Environments. (pp. 493-514). Information Science Reference Series. Hershey, PA. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7823-9.ch024.

Gray, C. M., & Howard, C. D. (2016). Normativity concerns, avoided: Instructional barriers in designing for social change. In R. S. Adams, P. Buzzanell, & J. A. Siddiqui (Eds.) Analyzing Design Review Conversations (pp. 241-260). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.

Howard, C. D. (2014). The rhetoric of Instructional Design Cases: Knowledge building via examples of process and product. In B. Hokanson & A. Gibbons (Eds.), Design in educational technology: Design thinking, design process, and the design studio. (pp. 107-124). Springer Press. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-00927-6

Invited Journal Articles (1)

Howard, C. D., Boling, E., Rowland, G., & Smith, K. M. (2012). Instructional design cases and why we need them. Educational Technology, 52(3) 34-38.

Editorially-reviewed Journal Articles (4)

Boling, E., Easterling, W. V., Hardré, P. L., Howard, C. D., & Roman, T. A. (2011). ADDIE: Perspectives in transition. Educational Technology, 51(5), 34-38.

Howard, C. D. (2004). Identifying the role of corpora in EFL materials design. The Journal of the Rikkyo University Language Center, 11(1), 39-47.

Howard, C. D. (2003). Overcoming online obstacles: Macro-factors in online enhanced course design. The Journal of Kanda University of International Studies, 15(1), 293-312.

Howard, C. D. (2002). Variations of turn taking in the speech of EFL learners. The Journal of Kanda University of International Studies, 14(1), 393-407.

Peer-reviewed Conference Proceedings (6)

Gray, C. M., & Howard, C. D. (2015, June). “Why Are They not Responding to Critique?”: A Student-Centered Construction of the Crit. In LearnxDesign: The 3rd International Conference for Design Education Researchers and PreK-16 Design Educators (pp. 1680-1700). Chicago, IL: School of the Art Institute of Chicago.

Howard, C. D., & Gray, C. M. (2015, January). Higher Order Thinking in Design Reviews. In R. Adams (Ed.) Proceedings of the DTRS 10 Symposium. West Lafayette, IN. n.p.

Gray, C. M., & Howard, C. D. (2015, January). Normatively in Design Communication: Inscribing Values in Designed Artifacts.  In R. Adams (Ed.) Proceedings of DTRS 10 Symposium. West Lafayette, IN. n.p.

Howard, C. D., & Gray, C. M. (2014, October). Learner v. Expert Design Talk: A Content Analysis of the Discourse of Designerly Talk. In DTRS’10: 10th annual Design Thinking Research Symposium. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.

Gray, C. M., & Howard, C. D. (2013, November). Expectations of Reciprocity? An Analysis of Critique in Facebook Posts by Student Designers. In Critique 2013: An International Conference Reflecting On Creative Practice in Art, Architecture, and Design (pp. 381-395). Adelaide, AU: The University of South Australia.

Frick, T., Barrett, A., Howard, C., Enfield, J., & Myers, R. (2009, October). Alternative Research Methods: MAPSAT Your Data to Prevent Aggregation Aggravation. In Association for Educational Communications and Technology Conference (AECT) Proceedings. (pp. 1-10). Louisville, KY.

Peer-reviewed Book Reviews (3)

*Culbertson, J. L., & Howard, C. D. (2020). Review of: Huang, R., Spector, M.J., & Yang, J. (2019) Educational technology: A primer for the 21st century. Springer Singapore. TechTrends 64, 678–679. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-020-00507-2.

Howard, C. D. (2012). Review of language learning and teacher education: A Sociocultural Approach Edited by Margaret Hawkins, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Literacy, Culture, and Language Education, 1(1), 251-254.

Howard, C. D. (2011). Review of Cedric Cullingford and Nusrat Haq’s: Computers, schools and students: The effects of technology. London: Ashgate. The Information Society, 27(1), 137-138.

Contributions to other Books (not included in tally)

Howard, C. D. (2014). Activity #67 Collaborative video annotations. In Bonk, C. J., & Khoo, E. Adding some TEC-VARIETY: 100+ Activities for Motivating and Retaining Learners Online (pp. 198-200). OpenWorldBooks.

Howard, C. D. (2013). Case Study: Generating data using collaborative video annotation. In Paulus, T., Lester, J. and Dempster, P. Digital tools for qualitative research (pp. 76-78). Sage.

Manuscripts Under Peer-review (1)

Lunga, M. L., & Howard, C. D. (under review at the International Journal of Designs for Learning) Educating the early designer.

Grant work

Externally Funded Grants

2020                Fruved to Farm: Students Creating, Implementing and Evaluating a Food Systems Program USDA – AFRI 22 Jul 2020 – 31 Dec 2025. Secondary Investigator with Sarah Colby and others. (USDA, $410,402.)

2012                Travel grant from Association of Educational Communications and Technology

(AECT, $2000).

2004                Materials development grant from the Japanese National Department of Education Grant-in-Aid for materials and curriculum renewal. (Approx. 1,000US$).

Internally Funded Grants

2014                Program development grant, Texas A&M University-Texarkana. Faculty Research & Educational Development (FRED, $7000).

2011                Travel grant from Indiana University Graduate and Professional Students Organization ($250).

2003                Professional development grant for a Peer-Observation Program from Kanda University of International Studies (2,500$).

2001                Research grant for the Kanda Email Exchange Program, Keypals, from the Japanese Research Institute for Language Studies and Language Education (2001-2004. 25,000$ annually, Co-PI with Alistair Van Moere, PhD).

Unfunded Grant Submissions

2016                NSF Improving STEM education grant application for $325,000, entitled The app farm: Learning French though the design of a mobile language learning application Co-PI with Profs Cary Staples, Sebastian Dubriel and Lisa Yamagata-Lynch.

Presentations (68) 18 Invited, 8 Colloquia, and 42 Peer-reviewed conference presentations

Invited Presentations (18)

Howard. C.D. (2021, June) Research Trajectories in the Field of Instructional Design. Old Dominion University (ODU) Invited Lecture. Virtual.

Howard, C. D., (2021, March) Collecting, curating, and sharing innovation in Instructional Design. Brigham Young University (BYU) Guest Lecture Serious in Instructional Design and Technology. Virtual.

Boling, E., Baaki, J., & Howard, C. D., (2019, October). AECT journals editor’s panel. AECT Conference. Las Vegas, NV.

Howard, C. D. (2018, July). コンピューターによる言語学習. Instructional design in language teaching. Invited address, 首都大学東京 Tokyo Metropolitan University. Tokyo, Japan.  [Delivered in Japanese]

Howard, C. D. (2018, March). Instructional Systems Technology Professional Panel.  Design for Learning, Collaborate for Change. Bloomington, IN.

Boling, E., Howard, C. D., Gray, C. M. & Baaki, J. (2016, November). The Design Case Slam: Studying the Instructional Design. Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Las Vegas, NV.

Howard, C. D. (2016, February). Measuring Higher Order Design Thinking in a Meditated Space. Invited lecture, Purdue University, IN.

Howard, C. D. (2013, May). Discourses in Instructional Design. Invited lecture, Texas A & M University, Texarkana, TX.

Howard, C. D. (2013, March). Dissecting the Features of Instructional Design(s). Invited lecture, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA.

Howard, C. D. (2013, March). Instructional Design Cases: A Lesson for Graduate Learners. Invited lecture, University of Tampa, FL.

Boling, E., Smith, K. M., Howard, C. D., & Gray, C. M. (2012, November). Prospective Authors’ Workshop: Design Cases and the International Journal of Designs for Learning. Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Louisville, KY.

Tracey, M., Yamagata-Lynch, L., Moore, S. L., & Howard, C. D. (2012, November). Getting into the Mind of the Designer. Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Louisville, KY. [This was a panel]

Howard, C. D. (2012, December). Instructional Design at the Masters Level. Invited lecture, Quinnipiac University, CT.

Howard, C. D. (2012, June). Critical Discourse in Social Media: Four studies. Invited lecture, Concordia University Chicago, IL.

Howard, C. D. (2012, April). Knowledge Building in Educational Research: Design Cases in the International Journal of Designs for Learning. Invited address, Design and Technology SIG, American Educational Research Association. Vancouver, BC, Canada. [This was part of an editors’ panel]

Boling, E., & Howard, C. D. (2011, November). IJDL: Creating and Disseminating Design Knowledge. Invited webinar sponsored by AECT’s Design & Development Division. [Online]

Howard, C. D., & Van Moere, A. (2005, January). Email Exchange as a Skills-Based Writing Curriculum. Invited lecture at Thammasat University Extension / Asian Institute of Technology. Bangkok, Thailand. (Honorarium).

Howard, C. D. (2002, December). Class to Class Email Exchange. Invited lecture at Teachers College Columbia University. Tokyo, Japan.

On-campus colloquia and symposia (8)

*Thompson, D., Howard, C., *Michela, E., *Lunga, M., and *Alyanbaawi, A. (2021, March). Re-framing collaborative online learning: Examples in applying an instructional design Approach [virtual presentation]. University of Tennessee Innovative Teaching & Learning Conference 2021, Knoxville, TN.

 Howard, C. D. & Yamagata-Lynch, L. C. (2021, January) Managing Asynchronous Discussions. IT Community of Practice Professional Development Series. Office of Instructional Technology. Held in Zoom Video Conference. UT Knoxville, TN.

Howard, C. D., & Gramling, J.  (2018, February). Taking Courses Online— Professional Panel. IT Community of Practice Professional Development Series. Office of Instructional Technology. Hodges Library. UT Knoxville, TN.

Howard, C. D. (2012, November). Dossier Development Student Workshop. Graduates in Instructional Systems Technology (GIST) Professional Development Series. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

Jackson, J. B., Boling, E., Howard, C. D., Storey, W., & Duffy, L. (2012, March). Moderated Panel Discussion on Digital Publishing with Editors of four ScholarWorks Journals. Wells Library Brown Bag Series. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. (Panel)

Howard, C. D. (2010, April). Video Annotations: An Alternative Asynchronous Content-based Discussion Forum. Workshop at the Foreign and Second Language Teaching Share Fair.  Center for Language Technology and Instructional Enrichment (CeLTIE). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

Van Moere, A., & Howard, C. D. (2000, May). Keypals in the Freshman English Curriculum: A Pilot Study. Invited to bag lunch lecture with Research Institute of Language Studies & Language Education (RILS&LE) lecture series at Kanda University. Chiba, Japan.

Howard, C. D. (2000, April). Approaches to Team Teaching. Invited lecturer as part of the Kanda Institute of Foreign Language (KIFL) English Education Seminars. Fukushima, Japan.

Peer-reviewed conference presentations (42) *Asterixis indicates a student contributor

Boling, E., Roman, T., Callison, M., Howard, C. D. (2021, April). Design Discourse in an online collaboration. American Educational Research Association (AERA). Virtual conference due to the COVID19 pandemic.

Howard, C. D. & Benedicks, R. H. (2020, November) Strategies to improve authenticity in design learning. AECT Virtual Conference.  Virtual conference due to the COVID19 pandemic.

Boling, E., Roman, T., Callison, M., Howard, C. D. (2020, July). Peer Feedback as Design Talk: Alternative to Studio Critique in an Online Class. American Educational Research Association (AERA). Virtual conference due to the COVID19 pandemic.

*Bevins, K.L. & Howard, C. D. (2019, October). A Shift to a Holistic View of the Instructional Designer. AECT Conference.  Las Vegas, NV.

*Bevins, K.L. & Howard, C. D. (2018, October). Key Discursive Behaviors in Design Learning. AECT Conference.  Kansas City, MO.

*Bevins, K.L. & Howard, C. D. (2018, July). Designerly Talk in the Design Studio. AECT Summer Research Symposium.  Bloomington, IN.

Howard, C. D. (2016, November). Eliciting Precedent in Instructional Design: The Case of Bonne Chance. Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Las Vegas, NV.

Howard, C. D., & Gray, C.M. (2016, April).  Meaning Making in an Interactive Video Annotation Environment. Paper Session at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting. Washington, DC.

Gray, C. M., & Howard, C. D. (2016, April). Inverting Critique: Emergent Technologically-Mediated Critique Practices of Developing Design Students. Paper Session at the AERA Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.

Howard, C. D., & Gray, C. M. (2014, November). Extra-curricular Design Learning: Emergent Critique in Learners’ SNS Interactions.  Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Jacksonville, FL.

Howard, C. D., & Gray, C. M. (2014, October). Higher Order Thinking in Design Reviews. Design Thinking Research Symposium. Purdue University, IN.

Gray, C. M., & Howard C. D. (2014, October). Normativity in Design Communications. Design Thinking Research Symposium. Purdue University, IN.

Gray, C. M., & Howard, C. D. (2013, November). Expectations of Reciprocity? An Analysis of Critique in Facebook Posts by Student Designers. Adelaide, Australia.

Boling, E., Gray, C. M., & Howard, C. D. (2013, October). Design Case Workshop: International Journal of Designs for Learning. Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Anaheim, CA.

Howard, C. D., & Jeong, A. (2012, November). Discourse Processes that Lead to Higher Order Thinking in a Video-annotated Pre-service Teacher Discussion. Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Louisville, KY.

Howard, C. D. (2012, July). Instructional Design Cases: Documenting precedent in instructional design. Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Summer Research Symposium. Louisville, KY.

Howard, C. D. (2012, April). The Impact of Modeling and Staggered Participation in Video-annotated Pre-service Teacher Discussions. American Educational Research Association (AERA). Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Howard, C. D. (2011, November). Video Annotated Teaching Observations: Analyses of Asynchronous Collaborative Viewing. Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Jacksonville, FL.

Boling, E., & Howard, C. D. (2011, November). Disseminating Design Knowledge: Issues in Developing the Design Case. Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Jacksonville, FL.

Frick, T. W., Barrett, A.F., Howard, C. D., & Myers, R.D. (2011, November). Applications of MAPSAT in Educational Research: Map & Analyze Patterns & Structures Across Time. Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Jacksonville, FL.

Frick, T. W., Barrett, A.F., Gray, C., Howard, C. D., & Jung, J. (2011, November). Preparing Students in Instructional Design and Technology to Become Skilled Researchers: Multiple Approaches. Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Jacksonville, FL.

Jung, J., Gray, C.M., Howard, C. D., Modell, M. G, Yildrim, C., & Boling, E. (2011, November). Preparation of Visual Materials to Study How EFL Learners Use Images in the Learning Process. Association of Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Jacksonville, FL.

Howard, C. D., & Myers, R. D. (2011, April). A Design Case: Creating a Video-annotated Teaching Observation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). New Orleans, LA.

Barrett, A. F., Howard, C. D., & Frick, T.W. (2011, April). Product Quality and Conditions of Anonymity in Formative Peer Assessment: Pre-service Teachers’ Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). New Orleans, LA.

Boling, E., Easterling, W.V., Hardre P.L., Howard, C. D., & Roman T. A. (2011, April). ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation): Perspectives in Transition. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). New Orleans, LA.

Howard, C. D. (2011, March). Collaborative Video Annotations as Critical Discourse. Paper presented at the Georgetown University Roundtable on Language and New Media (GURT). Washington, DC.

Howard, C. D. (2010, October). Collaborative Video Annotation as an Asynchronous Alternative. Paper presented at the Association for Educational Communication and Technology (AECT). Anaheim, CA.

Boling, E., Hardre, P., Howard, C. D., Easterling, W., & Roman, T. A. (2010, April). Design Judgment as a Component of Design Character: Some Focused Views from the Field. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). Denver, CO.

Barrett, A., Howard, C. D., & Frick, T. W. (2010, May). Product Quality in Formative Peer Assessment: How Pre-service Teachers’ Computer-Mediated Feedback Changes with Peer Product Quality. Paper presented at the Canadian Society for the Study of Education. Montréal, QB, Canada.

Barrett, A. F., & Howard, C. D. (2010, April). Computer- Mediated Formative Peer Assessment: How Pre-service Teachers React to Product Quality.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). Denver, CO.

Howard, C. D. (2010, October). Anonymous Discussions: How Learners Commented on Each Other’s Work in a Protected Space. Paper presented at the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Louisville, KY.

Frick, T., Howard, C. D., Barrett, A. F., Myers, R., & Enfield, J. (2010, October). MAPSAT your Data to Prevent Aggregation Aggravation. Paper presented at the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Louisville, KY.

Howard, C. D. (2009, May). Part of Speech Tagged Asynchronous CMC: Native versus Non-native Trigrams. Paper presented at the Language Online Conference (LOL). Champaign, IL.

Howard, C. D. (2009, March). Language Learning on Web 2.0: Interactivity on the New Language Learning Landscape. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). San Diego, CA.

Howard, C. D., & Barrett, A. F. (2009, March). Anonymity in Online Peer Reviews: Pre-service Teachers’ Online Comments in Two Critique Designs. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). San Diego, CA.

Howard, C. D. (2004, February). Teaching Academic Reading with Visuals. Paper presented at the Lao Tesol Conference. Vientiane, Laos.

Howard, C. D. (2004, January). A Structured Approach to Teaching Web Skills and Email. Paper presented at the 24th Annual Thai TESOL Conference. Kon Kaern, Thailand.

Howard, C. D. (2003, November). Successful Email Exchanges. Paper presented at the national Japan Association of Language Teachers (JALT) conference. Shizuoka, Japan.

Howard, C. D. (2003, January). Email Exchange: Curricula and Development. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Thai TESOL Conference. Bangkok, Thailand.

Howard, C. D. (2002, November). Email as Internet-Mediated Language Instruction. Paper presented at the national Japan Association of Language Teachers (JALT) Conference. Shizuoka, Japan.

Howard, C. D., & Willcocks, K. (2002, March). Class to Class Collaborative Feedback. Paper presented at the Korea TESOL national conference. Seoul, Korea.

Howard, C. D. (2002, June). Content-based Email Exchange. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Hokkaido JALT Association. Sapporo, Japan.

Howard, C. D., & Van Moere, A. (2001, April). Literature Review: A Critical Review of Class to Class Email Exchange Studies. Paper presented at the International Language and Education Conference at Hong Kong Technical University. Hong Kong SAR, China.